|Type of Place||Independent City or Town|
|Metro Area?||Independent City or Town|
|Politics c. 1860?||Strongly Democratic|
|Unions, Organized Labor?||Strong|
|Sundown Town Status|
|Confirmed Sundown Town?||Always Biracial|
|Year of Greatest Interest|
|Was there an ordinance?||Don't Know|
|Still Sundown?||Surely Not|
|Tell Dr. Loewen More About This Town|| |
|Particular buildings and boroughs had questionable practices, while the city as a whole was always very racially and ethnically mixed.
The Dakota, Bel Nord, and other elegant apartment blocks have parks in their middles. Gans says these are gated communities of sorts and probably kept out blacks for a long time.
Rockaway Beach, NYC: Two black families bought a duplex in 1975; it "was set afire nine times" that year. (see Dorothy K. Newman, et al., Protest, Politics, and Prosperity (NY: Pantheon, 1978), 139, citing Amsterdam News, 3/22/75.)
New York City Resident:
"I suggest that you look at various locations in the southern portion of Staten Island and the Howard Beach and Beach Channel communities in Queens, NY. Although they have recently suffered heavily as a result of the events of September 11, 2001, and the recent plane crash in the Rockaways (also in Queens), the adjacent neighborhoods of Belle Harbor and Breezy Point would be interesting inclusions to your book. These areas are peopled primarily by ethnic Americans of Irish and Italian descent."
New York City Historian:
"Stuyvesant Town and Parkchester in New York City, built with a lot of public funds in the 1940s and originally at least all white. Stuyvesant Town was an immense project with a lot of federal and city money poured into it, under Mayor LaGuardia, generally a liberal though not re this."